Since negotiations with Les Grossman per Ben Stiller Tom Cruise Justin Theroux Paramount etc. are on going there is more to this project than meets the eye. Plus you now have "A True Hollywood Legend…Les Grossman AKA Tom Cruise's Alter-Ego just out setting the record straight on Amazon.com All the best and be in touch, TheRealLesGrossman.com
On your first point, I will concede I wrote poorly in response to Shelley. I do not believe the value of a critical edition is to lay down some sort of single meaning/interpretation for the reader. Nonetheless, editors do have to make a series of choices regarding what sort of information/ approach they are taking, meaning that they are inherently limiting the construction of the text in some way (and whether they overtly or subtly guide the reader's interpretation is always something to consider when looking at a variety of editing styles - some times, perhaps we can argue always, the editor becomes a de facto author when inserting himself "too much" into the the text). In our case, we chose a sociological approach, highlighting historical context, publishing history, and genre issues in our notes, for instance. Other editors might have highlighted other concepts, dropping out what we chose to linger over. Returning to the idea that the angst thus arises from multiple editors, I would say, sure, at least in this experience for this product, as at times it was an "anything goes"issue: people annotated concepts in a wide variety of ways, which was completely at odds with the footnote theory we adapted (in which footnotes only function to clarify for the modern reader, offering as little interruption from the editor as possible, while easing the reading experience). Is that sort of product valuable? Depends on what you're looking for at the time; the initial product did not reflect our carefully argued and selected goal.
The second point you raise I want to approach delicately, as I carefully tried not to take a position in terms of the expert/novice debate (even the defining of such is always up for grabs, depending on context). The traditionalist in me went "eek!" when you compared a crowd-sourced critical edition to Wikipedia - not because I don't see the parallels, but because I remain resistant to seeing them in the same light (I know, I know, people will howl me down now for not placing Wiki in the same place as other texts yet). Laura is bang on when she writes, "Personally, I do think that collective knowledge produced by such a project as Megan describes has the potential to generate a great deal of knowledge, not to mention resources for scholars who want access to lesser known texts that book publishers would be leery to take on the financial burden of producing." That is a huge plus! But as she also points out, in the end, it seems peer review is the solution. I return to the earlier post, in which peer review was helpful, but in at least this instance, and I can think of others, it mattered very much which "peers" were doing the reviewing. Laura asks, and I agree it's important, "But more to the point, how do we even define 'expert'"? At the same time, I think it's fairly clear that there are those with training and experience that are often called in to bring some clarity to any large scale editing project. She is right though in terms of time, effort, and research; the students from the course marched post-haste through some impressively difficult work and certainly emerged knowing far more about the content and text than the average reader. They certainly earned the credit the professor gave to them. They are experts, of sorts (that's a purposefully hedged label there; I was one of the students and would not sell myself as an "expert" editor).
Finally, Laura rejects the idea that such vetting erases the collaborative process; I'll respond by saying in my opinion the answer is yes and no. In our case, we were fortunate to be given credit as co-editors (this is not so for all projects, or even viable in some); but large swathes of work was deleted or rewritten, so that the style became more uniform. Is this a bad thing? I don't have an answer for that, because as a (even at my fairly young age, I'm an old-school) reader, I am trained to expect uniformity from my editorial interventions. But if, perhaps, you were hoping for markers from a multitude of voices and concerns, then maybe such standardizing would not be your taste.
Thanks, Laura and Shelley! You have got me running over thoughts from months ago, which is very helpful!
Megan and Shelley-
In reading this thread I'm struck by the sense that we are discussing 3 different issues: meaning, authority and usabilty.
First meaning- when I consider of the purpose of a critical edition of any text produced outside of this historical moment I question the sense that the editor's job is to help me find a singular meaning. In other words, trying to capture a reader's "original experience" (or experiences) is still often a layered and even conflicted project. When Shelley asks "isn't that intellectual work the point?" I would agree wholeheartedly. The editor's job is to give me the tools to understand these layers and see these contradictions through various annotations, supplementary materials and notes about emendations. I think the angst we are then addressing in the context of an online multi-participant editing project has more to do with whether a document produced in such a way affords the same authority in providing that reliable content.
So secondly-authority, credibility or ethos— whatever we call it—Megan writes, " If the digital space allows for a democratization of the editing process, inviting “non-expert” participants, who may not be editors but may have (or might not have) expertise in content, to work alongside expert editors, is the product still a critical edition?" It seems to me we debate this question in a multitude of contexts and the question is ultimately not that different from debating the reliability of cites like Wikipedia. The tension between collective knowledge and expert knowledge in digital formats is not going away anytime soon. Personally, I do think that collective knowledge produced by such a project as Megan describes has the potential to generate a great deal of knowledge, not to mention resources for scholars who want access to lesser known texts that book publishers would be leery to take on the financial burden of producing. Perhaps the answer here can be found in the same place academics have always turned—peer review. Does such vetting erase the collaborative process? I doubt it. Even in the case Megan describes, the "non-experts" were supervised by an expert professor, thus providing a certain amount of credibility by default. But more to the point, how do we even define "expert"? Certainly all the students involved in this project invested time and labor that the vast majority of us have not. In this sense they are all experts and have every right to present your work as such.
Finally usability- in addressing the question "who wants to work that hard?" that depends on the kind of work we are talking about. If it's the intellectual work mentioned above, we all should. But navigating a high volume of information requires a certain amount of design to make the exercise tolerable. Megan writes, "In a short time, the class produced a multi-faceted document with a wealth of contextual information and publication details; in some ways, it suffered from information overload." Ultimately any text will need some amount of uniformity to is organization to make sense and be usable to its audience. But in my view to do so does not erase the collaborative effort of the work, it simply makes it accessible and useful. In the end, isn't that the whole point?
And you are right in that, again, for me, there is still some desire to reflect or at least illustrate the "original" experience of the text, i.e. how it was "intended" (yes that is a long, sticky convo, esp with the likelihood of multiple authors) to be received - the "single meaning" of the text, if you will. When making our arguments for how to edit these texts, I strongly opposed a mere reproduction of the texts, each in their entirety, without any combination, pushing instead for the hybrid form (putting the texts in a structural conversation to highlight their intertexual relationship for the reader). So while we created a version of the text that has never existed before, we tried to illustrate evolving sociological concerns. Ironically, to my mind, the hybrid version would do a better job arguing for that evolution of the "original" meanings between Hell Upon Earth and Memoirs of John Hall than two essentially unedited reproductions, just placed side by side.
My response has rambled and I'm still thinking, so thank you, Shelley.
Megan, I like how your piece got me thinking. I'm wondering if your concern is overridden by the concern for modernist conceptions of author and editor, even singular meaning of the text. I know that your reflection obviously demonstrates you are not locked into those perspectives; however, I wonder if your angst is because culturally, even individually (I want single meaning!) we want singular authorial intent and singular meaning.
All that to say…can we embrace layers of content and meaning and chaos of context & meaning? I think your final comment about needing to know/understand the technological possibilities to construct environments that can filter different perspectives, layers of meaning and annotation, etc. is important (obviously we can't make the space without knowing how to do so).
But that does bring us back to the reader; who wants to work that hard for meaning? It takes a lot more intellectual work (I'm channeling Moberly here) to negotiate the more chaotic, layered texts that could juggle all of the complexity you discuss. But isn't that type of work the point/purpose of why people read "critical" editions?
Again, thanks for the opportunity to think through/ramble on the topic/issue.
Thanks for your comment Jamie. I do think the project can be adapted to other schools in the USA, since the pervasiveness of sugary foods is something that occurs nationally. As regard to the kind of "play" that the project uses, you are right, it is different to the one of a board game or a video game. The play that occurs in this project is more related to the performance arts, something like playing a role in a theater play or in a situation. Imagine for instance the kind of games that children sometimes make when they play being somebody else from the world of adults like a doctor, a teacher, or a mother. There are elements of performance that can make learning fun, especially when learning challenges are designed to explore and experiment with the real world. Playing to be a scientist, for instance can make data collection activities more engaging. Likewise, playing to be a cartographer or a mapper. Thinking about play in a broader sense can be useful for the design of learning experiences and environments.
Chvonne, I am glad to hear the post gave you some ideas on how to integrate gamification into learning. You should definitely try this approach in your composition courses. Be ready to iterate your learning designs, sometimes the context could not be that engaging for all the students and you will have to re-design it several times.
The great thing about this project is how accessable it is. As much as it seems to teach about nutrition, it also teaches about visual media and family and community involvement in eating habits. It also certainly falls under gamification instead of game as it uses a quest idea, but isn't play in the way that a game is. You have done a great job with explaining the project, but I do have a question. Would the program be reproducible outside of this individual school? Could I take this use it in a high school in Norfolk (where I attend school)?
This post has severed as my "aha" moment. I am new to gamification and have been reading about gamification over the last few weeks in order to gain a better understanding. The readings have all given me something different to think about and established a better understanding of gamification. However, in the back of my mind, I have been asking myself how it actually works. I am seeing the theoretical side of things and how useful it can be for learning, but I had no clue how it could be applied. This gave me a good sense of how I can use gamification. The emphasis on constant feedback and meaningful context helped me to see the possibilities for scaffolding writing assignments in my freshman comp classes. The idea that "the context of an engaging learning environment has to connect to the everyday lives of the students" is an issue in freshman composition courses, where students are often taking part in writing assignments that do not connect to their lives. I can see now how the use of gamification could lead to better student engagement in composition courses.
Matthew and Anthony — thanks for your thoughtful comments, which both touch on the same ideas. If I'm reading what you've written correctly, I think we're basically in total agreement. Gamification, if it works at all, generates compliance — that's what it's best at. But games are not about compliance (indeed, as I've tried to argue here, they're about quite the opposite), and so it's important for educators to think about what they're trying to do when they're considering designing learning interventions.
If the goal is compliance, then gamification is possibly an appropriate approach. In some cases, I suppose, a compliance orientation is the only rational move — Anthony, your "working with live electricity" training example is a good one in that regard, though it also of course raises the question of why bother to 'gamify' such a lesson when surely the desire of the learner to continue breathing would be enough.
But generally, I think the compliance approach to education — which, let's face it, is the standard default approach — is almost always a matter of putting the cart before the horse. I would go back to Dewey on this one — to paraphrase, in Experience and Education, he said something like, "our desires are the moving springs of all action," and that it is only through action and experience — desire-driven play with the world that we inhabit — that we truly learn. So for someone to truly act, and thereby truly learn, they have to truly want to take the action that they are taking, not just be told that it's the thing they need to do and offered a badge or other treat in return.